(Rom 13) DGA 204; RBA 410 (Prop 14, 407-429); RBAF 371

(Rom 13:1-10) GF4: 343

(Rom 13:1-7) GF6: 309-24; GF8: 86-90 [319]; JN2: 101; EQ 363-71

(Rom 13:1-5) GF4: 87-89, 274; JN1: 527f; JN2: 43; EQ 347 (BC)


(Rom 13)

GF6: 309-24: long tract "To all Kings, Princes, Rulers, Governors, Bishops, and Clergy, that profess christianity in Christendom. Being a distinction between the laws, commandments, and ordinances of the higher powers [Rom 13: 1f], for the punishment of evil doers, and the praise of them that do well [1 Pet 2:14]. And the ordinances, doctrines, and commands of men, concerning religion and worship, which are not to be touched, tasted nor handled [Col 2:20-22]...."

GF8: 86-90 [319]: "To Friends in Nevis, and the Carribee Islands." Whole epistle deals with Friends’ relation to magistrates and laws.

EQ 363-71: Edward Burrough, "A Message for Instruction, to all the Rulers, Judges, and Magistrates, to whom the Law is committed..."

RBA 407-429: Proposition 14 (Concerning the Power of the Civil Magistrate in Matters purely Religious, and pertaining to the Conscience)


13:1 Let every soul be subject unto [T: submit himself unto the authority of] the higher powers. For there is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God.      qtext

13:2 Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation [G: condemnation].      qtext


(Rom 13:1) GFJN 385; GF3: 16 (EB), 166, 175, 223, 335, 370, 546, 552; GF4: 45f, 88, 277, 308; 410; GF7: 162 [171], 243 [229]; MFU 230; JN1: 32, 107; 216 (GF), 223; JN2: 199, 235; JN3: 83; WDS 96; IP2: 427? EQ 406; HPS 127; JWJM 80

(Rom 13:1f) JN1: 21, 85, 104; WPR 510, 579 (WPT 365)

(Rom 13:2) GF8: 87 [319]; MFU 167, 433; JN3: 84


(Rom 13:1)

[Other texts citing Rom 13:1: GF4:88 (1 Pet 2:13), GF4:277 (Rev 11:3f), MFU 230 (Mat 28:18), JN2:235 (2 Pet 2:10), HPS 127 (John 4:20-24)]

GF7:162 (1659): The Papist [Episcopal man, Presbyterian, Independent, Anabaptist] cries, help, higher powers [Rom 13:1], or else my mass [common-prayer, etc.] will go down, and all my ceremonies..... Are not ye all ashamed? And show ye are naked, out of the power and life the apostles were in; and from their weapons naked? The outward power neither upheld nor separated them from the love of God, which they had in Christ [Rom 8:36f], the end of the law [Rom 10:4].

GF7: 243: Let not your souls be subject to the lower power of darkness, which is out of the truth, lest you bring destruction upon your own selves [2 Pet 2:1]; but let your souls be subject to the higher power [Rom 13:1], that is above the lower power of darkness.

JWJM 80 (John Churchman’s speech to the legislature, 1748): "The powers that be are ordained of God." [Rom 13:1] Now if men in power in whatsoever station do seek unto God (who will be a spirit of judgment to them who sit in judgment [Isa 28:6]) for wisdom and counsel to act singly for him that ordained the power and permitted them to be stationed therein, that they should be his ministers, such will be a blessing under God to their country; but if those in authority do suffer their own fears and the fears and persuasions of others to prevail with them to neglect such attention, and so make laws in order to their own protection and defence by carnal weapons [1 Cor 10:4] and fortifications styled "human prudence," he who is Superintendent, by withdrawing the arm of his power, may permit those evils they feared to come suddenly upon them.

(Rom 13:1f)

JN1:21(1653): And saith Paul, "Let every soul be subject to the higher power"; for, saith he, "there is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God" [Rom 13:1]; and that "whosoever resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God" [Rom 13:2]: and saith, "We must needs be subject for conscience sake" [Rom 13:5]; and therefore, though the prophets were often sent by the Lord to pronounce judgment against unjust men who had the power committed to them and did not judge for God [Hos 5:11], but for self-ends, yet they never attempted any violence against them but used all means to persuade them to "love mercy, do justice, & walk humbly with God," [Mic 6:8] that they might be established and the wrath of God turned from them; for those that be of God cannot rejoice in the sufferings of any, but would have all to turn and find mercy [Hos 12:6?].

WPR 579: But though they were not for fighting, they were for submitting to government [Rom 13:1]; and that, not only for fear, but for conscience sake [Rom 13:5], where government doth not interfere with conscience: believing it to be an ordinance of God [Rom 13:2], and where it is justly administered, a great benefit to mankind....

(Rom 13:2)

MFU 167 (1655): ...thou knows not the difference between carnal ordinances and the power which is ordained of God: & whoever resisteth the power resisteth the ordinance of God [Rom 13:2]. And the Apostle exhorted them to keep the ordinances ... & he saith that the head of every man is Christ [1Cor 11:2f]. This is the ordinance which is ordained of God for salvation, Christ the light the power of God unto salvation to everyone that believes [Rom 1:16], & he that resisteth this power resisteth the ordinance of God. This is the ordinance which the Apostle delivered unto them and bid them keep. But thou art talking of other ordinances, & art in the beggarly rudiments and are not dead with Christ from the rudiments of the world, which the Apostle saith, touch not, taste not, handle not, which all are to perish with the using of them after the commandments and doctrines of men [Col 2:20-22].


13:3 For rulers [G: magistrates] are not a terror to [GT: to be feared for; B: fearful to] good works, but to the [GT: for] evil. Wilt thou then not be afraid of [GT: (G: then) be without fear of; B: not fear] the power? do that which is good [GB: well; T: well then], and thou shalt have praise of the same:      qtext

[13:3f may be confl w 1 Pet 2:14]

13:4 For he is the minister of God to thee for good [GBT: thy wealth]. But if thou do that which is evil [GBT: evil], be afraid [GB: fear; T: then fear]; for he beareth not the sword in vain [GT: for naught]: for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon [GT: to take vengeance on; B: revenger of wrath on] him that doeth evil.      qtext


(Rom 13:3-5) GF8: 87 [319]; JN1: 140, 258; JN3: 84

(Rom 13:3) GFJN 197; GF3: 16 (EB), 223, 286; GF4: 52, 277; GF6: 310f; GF7: 105 [103], 112 [111], 165 [172], 178 [188]; GF8: 87 [319], 195 [367]; GFEJ 393; LB (G19); MFU 17, 141, 355; JN1: 202, 528; JN2: 258; JN3: 86; WDS 124, 293; IP1: 71; IP3: 471f; IP4: 162; EQ 364, 406; WPR 471

(Rom 13:3f) GFJN 220, 460; GF3: 546, 552; GF7: 165 [172], 178 [188]; EQ 252 (FN); IP2: 99 [often confl w 1 Pet 2:14]

(Rom 13:4) GFJN 198, 460, 699; GF7: 13 [Tes]; JN1: 7 (GF), 106; IP1: 338f, 361, 370; RBA 415; RBAF 371


(Rom 13:3)

[Other texts citing Rom 13:3: MFU 141, 355 (1 Pet 2:14), JN1:528 (Rom 13:5), WPR 471 (1 Pet 2:14)]

(Rom 13:3f)

[Other texts citing Rom 13:3f: GF7:178 (Rev 13:10)]

GFJN 220 (16–) : The magistrate is not to bear the sword in vain, which is a terror to evil doers [Rom 13:3f], but the magistrates bearing the sword in vain, are not a terror to evil doers, so they are not a praise to them that do well [1 Pet 2:14].

IP2:99 (1660): Be sure you smite none for obedience to God. Limit not his Holy Spirit [Psa 78:41?] in his people; but limit the unclean and evil spirit in those who manifest themselves not to be his people. This is the true intent of government. How can he who governs aright under God, hurt that which is of God, and for God? Or how can he spare that which his sword is given him to cut down [Rom 13:3f]?

(Rom 13:4)

[Other texts citing Rom 13:4: GFJN 699 (Rom 8:13), GF7:13 (John 12:6), IP1:361 (Rev 9:4), IP1:370 (Luk 9:54-56)]

IP1:338 (1660): the true shepherd, who hath received the sword of the spirit [Eph 6:17], and hath tried the virtue of it, cannot distrust it, cannot desire the magistrate’s help by outward force against errors or heresies. He that looketh upon it as insufficient, and calleth to the magistrate for his sword [Rom 13:4], plainly discovers that he hath not received, or knoweth not the virtue of the true one, and dishonoreth both his master’s work and weapon.

RBA 415 (1678, XVI.3): Obj. ...they urge Rom 13[:4], where the magistrate is said not to bear the sword in vain, because he is the minister of God, to execute wrath upon such as do evil. But heresy, say they, is evil. Ergo. Ans. But so is hypocrisy also, yet they confess he ought not to punish that. Therefore this must be understood of moral evils, relative of affairs betwixt man and man, not of matters of judgment or worship, or else what great absurdities would follow, considering that Paul wrote here to the Church of Rome who was under the government of Nero, an impious heathen and persecutor of the Church? [Barclay expounds more on the absurdity of Nero having power from God]


13:5 Wherefore ye must needs be subject [obey], not only for wrath [B: fear of punishment; T: fear of vengeance], but also for conscience sake.      qtext

[cf 1 Pet 2:13]

13:6 For for this cause pay ye tribute also: for they are God's ministers, attending continually upon this very thing [G: applying themselves for the same thing; BT: serving for the same purpose].

13:7 Render therefore to all their dues: tribute to whom tribute is due [G: ye owe tribute; B: tribute; T: tribute belongeth]; custom to whom custom [T: +is due]; fear to whom fear [T: +belongeth]; honour to whom honour [B:+ belongeth; T: +pertaineth].      qtext


(Rom 13:5) JN1: 21, 32, 223, 527f; JN2: 234f, 262, 279; WDS 96; IP3: 471; RBA 3; WPR 579 (WPT 365)

(Rom 13:6f) EQ 347 (BC)

(Rom 13:7) GF3: 162f; GF5: 34; JN2: 565; IP3: 22f; HPS 406 (EB)


(Rom 13:5)

[Other texts citing Rom 13:5: JN1: 21 (Rom 13:1f), JN2:279 (Heb 9:14), RBA 3 (1 Pet 2:13), WPR 579 (Rom 13:1f)]

JN1:527f (1655): ...the saints know that there is a power which is of God to which they are subject for conscience sake [Rom 13:5], whether there be any persons to execute that power or no; for many times the persons who should have set up that power which is of God have set up their wills instead of it, and so have turned the edge of the sword (put into their hands) against them that do well, which is appointed by God for a terror to evildoers [Rom 13:3], and when such persons have ruled, God hath send his servants to witness against the person and his practice, but the power they are still subject to for conscience sake, which is one, and is not changed or corrupted, though the person be...

JN2:234 (1655): And you rulers, magistrates, and governors, who have the sword of the Lord in your hands.... you cannot rule for God unless you be ruled by him; but if you have received his law written in your hearts [Jer 31:33], and his judgments there, and his power and authority, and your souls subject thereto for conscience sake [Rom 13:5] ... then you rule with God and for God;

(Rom 13:7)

IP3: 22f (1667): ...we are taught of God to give due honor ... to the seed of God in the first place, to the seed of David in the second place. [Rom 13:7]

HPS 406 (Elizabeth Bathurst, 1679): "How can you believe, who receive honour one of another, and seek not the honour which cometh from God only?" John 5:44. Yet notwithstanding this, Christ did then require his disciples to "render honour to whom honour, and fear to whom fear" [Rom 13:7]; which requirings of his, all his true followers (in their respective places) are at this time careful to answer, how uncivil soever accounted by the World....


13:8 Owe no man any thing [GBT: nothing to any (B: no) man], but to love one another: for he that loveth another hath fulfilled the law. [T: + For these commandments: (from v 9)]      qtext

13:9 For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet [B: lust; T: desire and so forth]; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly [T: they are all] comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.

[Rom 13:9 cf Exo 20:13-17, Deu 5:17-21, Lev 19:18, James 2:11]

13:10 Love [B: Charity (2x)] worketh no ill to [G: doth not evil to; T: hurteth not] his neighbour: therefore love is the fulfilling of the law.      qtext


(Rom 13:8-10) GF6: 446

(Rom 13:8) GFJN 380; GF4: 215, 279; GF7: 194f,7 [200]; GF8: 48 [299], 191 [364]; GFEJ 294; EQ 436f (GF); LB (O-7,B41); MFU 210, 320

[Rom 13:9 cf Exo 20:13-17, Lev 19:18, James 2:11]

(Rom 13:9f) IP4: 428

(Rom 13:10) GFNJ 282, 380; GF2: 322; GF7: 151 [158], 159 [171]; GF8: 163 [356]; GFT 10; MFS 35; MFU 261, 296, 350; JN3: 74; IPL 42; IP2: 341; IP4: 354


(Rom 13:8)

[Other texts citing Rom 13:8: MFU 210 (John 5:24), MFU 320 (Mat 5:44)]

(Rom 13:10)

[Other texts citing Rom 13:10: GF7:159 (John 13:35), IP4:354 (Mar 12:33f)]

MFU 296 (1660): God is love, & he that dwells in God dwells in love [1 Jn 4:16], & love is the fulfilling of the law [Rom 13:10], & love thinketh no evil [1 Cor 13:5] nor doeth no evil, but overcometh evil with good [Rom 12:21]....

JN3:74f (1656): So the love of God abounds, and who dwells in it worketh no ill; but the work of love fulfills the law of God [Rom 13:10], which is upon all that's gone out from him into the world and self-ends, which hath received in the love of carnal things, and so are gone out into the enmity against God [Rom 8:7], setting the affection on changeable things [Col 3:2]; for whosoever will be a friend to the world is the enemy of God [Jas 4:4]; for the world's love arises from the spirit of the world; but the love of God is the fruit of God's Spirit [Gal 5:22], and none hath the love of God but who hath that Spirit from which it springs, which is eternal, unchangeable, and above all carnal things, nor can time or carnal things quench it, for it endures forever.


13:11 And that, knowing the time [G: and that, considering the season; B: and chiefly considering the season; T: This also we know I mean the season], that now it is high time to awake out of [G: that we should arise from] sleep: for now is our salvation nearer than when we believed [G: +it].      qtext

13:12 The night is far spent [G: past; BT: passed], the day is at hand [BT: come nigh]: let us therefore cast off [GBT: away] the works [BT: deeds] of darkness, and let us put on the armour of light.      qtext

13:13 Let us walk honestly, as in the day [T: as it were in the day light]; not in rioting [G: gluttony; T; eating] and drunkenness [T: drinking], not [G: nor; BT: neither (2x)] in chambering and wantonness, not in strife and envying.

13:14 But put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision [G: take no thought] for the flesh, to fulfil the lusts thereof.      qtext


(Rom 13:11-14) WPR 79

(Rom 13:11) GF3: 305? IP4: 413

(Rom 13:12-14) GF6: 157, 166; WPR 312 (WPT 103f)

(Rom 13:12) GF4: 25, 279, 315; GF6: 169, 426; GF7: 79 [67], 125 [130], 131 [135], 136 [142], 203 [206], 305 [252]; GF8: 27 [279]; MFU 222; JN1: 140, 195, 314; JN2: 590; JN3: 135, 749; IP3: 131; IP4: 210; EQ 106 (JN); HPS 208; RBA 302; TEM 161; WPR 121, 144, 616ff; WPT 290, 291, 296f [cf Eph 5:11, 6:11-17]

(Rom 13:13) GF7: 196 [200] [cf 1 Cor 6:9f, Gal 5:19-21]

(Rom 13:13f) GF5: 8; WPR 66

(Rom 13:14) GFJN 11; GF6: 174; GF8: 263 [397]; GFEJ 439; JN1: 74; JN2: 220; EQ 100 (WD), 321 (BC); IP1: 168; IP3: 37, 115; WPR 36, 570; WPT 348; WTG 92 (SM) [cf Gal 3:27]


(Rom 13:11)

IP4:413 (1671): Oh that ... there may be none among you drawing back to perdition! And take heed of deadness, drowsiness, sluggishness of spirit, earthliness, fleshly wisdom, unbelief, &c. (for that is a degree thereof, and leadeth thitherwards), but all to grow in faith, with diligence, towards the saving of your souls (which is far nearer than when you first believed [Rom 13:11]), which ye shall be sure in due time to reap, even the salvation ye wait for, if ye faint not, nor grow weary in your minds [Gal 6:9]....

(Rom 13:12)

[Other texts citing Rom 13:12: GF4:314f (Mat 24:20), GF7:79 (John 3:21), MFU 222 (Rom 1:14f), IP3:131 (1 Jn 2:8), HPS 208f (John 15:13)]

GF4:25 (1653): to that which should exercise your conscience do I appeal, for now the mighty day of the Lord is coming [Isa 13:9]; meet him, by putting off your works of darkness [Rom 13:12].

JN1:314 (1654): And while you give way to that in you which leads you to look back to what is behind you, you keep yourselves in the wilderness and darkness, and lose your way, and know not where you are, grieving the holy Spirit [Eph 4:30] of the Lord which hath appeared unto you to guide you [John 16:13]. But O friends! Mind your Guide, and follow him; arise, shine, your light is come, and the glory of the Lord is risen upon you [Isa 60:1]; the night is far gone, the day is at hand [Rom 13:12], even the day of Zion's deliverance.

(Rom 13:14)

[Other texts citing Rom 13:14: JN1:74 (Rev 13:7), EQ 100f (Heb 12:14)]

GFJN 10f ([1647]): The knowledge which the world hath, of what the prophets and apostles spake, is a fleshly knowledge; and the apostates from the life, in which the prophets and apostles were, have got their words, the holy scriptures, in a form, but not in the life nor spirit that gave them forth. So they all lie in confusion; and are making provision for the flesh, to fulfil the lusts thereof [Rom 13:14], but not to fulfil the law and command of Christ in his power and spirit: for that, they say they cannot do; but to fulfil the lusts of the flesh, that they can do with delight.

IP3:37 (1667): Query 12. What is it to put on Christ (Rom 13:14, Gal 3:27), or what is the putting on of Christ? Is it the putting on of that body of flesh [cf Col 2:11]? Or the putting on a belief concerning him, according to what is said of him in scripture? Or is it not rather a putting on of his nature, his seed, his Spirit, his life, wherewith the souls of those that are born from above are clothed, as the body is with a garment?

WPR 36 (1668): whilst you are fulfilling the lusts of the flesh [Rom 13:14], and walking after your own will and imaginations [Isa 65:2G], you are altogether strangers to the yoke [Mat 11:29f], to the daily cross, and self-denying life [Luk 9:23], but are yet the corrupt ground, and evil tree, which bring forth evil fruits [Mat 7:17], thorns, briars, and sour grapes [Ezek 18:2]....

WTG 92 (Susanna Morris, 1752): I have had great cause openly to declare against the lusts of the flesh and the pride of life [1 Jn 2:16] and the making any provisions for the flesh to fulfil the lusts thereof [Rom 13:14]....


14:1 Him that is weak in the faith receive ye, but not to doubtful disputations [G: but not for controversies of disputations; B: not to judgments of disputing; T: not in disputing and troubling his conscience].      qtext

14:2 For one believeth that he may eat all things: another, who is weak, eateth herbs.

14:3 Let not him that eateth despise him that eateth not; and let not him which eateth not judge [G: condemn] him that eateth: for God hath received him.

14:4 Who art thou that judgest [G: condemnest] another man's servant? to his own master he standeth or falleth [T: Whether he stand or fall that pertaineth unto his master] . Yea, he shall be holden up [G: be established; T: stand]: for God is able to make him stand.      qtext

14:5 One man esteemeth one day above another [BT: This man putteth difference between day and day]: another esteemeth [GBT: another man counteth] every day [BT: all days] alike. Let every man be fully persuaded [T: See that no man waver] in his own mind [T: meaning].      qtext

14:6 He that regardeth [GT: observeth; B: esteemeth] the day [T: one day more than another], regardeth [G: observeth; B: esteemeth; T: doth] it unto the Lord [T: for the Lord’s pleasure]; and he that regardeth not the day [GBT as in first clause], to the Lord he doth not regard it [G: observeth it not to the Lord; B: he doth not esteem it; T: doth it to please the Lord also]. He that eateth, eateth to [T: doth it to please] the Lord, for he giveth God thanks; and he that eateth not, to the Lord he eateth not [GBT: eateth not to (T: +please) the Lord], and giveth God thanks.      qtext


(Rom 14) GF6: 312, 345; IP1: 384-6

(Rom 14:1-6) IP2: 20; IP3: 385; IP4: 314

(Rom 14:1) GF6: 312; MFU 271

(Rom 14:4) GF3: 485; GF4: 321; GF5: 213; JN2: 190; JN3: 709n (RR); IP1: 324, 367, 386; IP2: 163f; IP4: 315

(Rom 14:4f) GF3: 320; IP3: 91

(Rom 14:5-8) WPT 332

(Rom 14:5) GF4: 213, 280, 322; GF6: 312'; IP1: 384

(Rom 14:5f) IP3: 385; RBAF 245n; EQ 338 (BC)

(Rom 14:6) IP2: 47; RBA 389; RBAF 343


(Rom 14)

IP1:384-6 (1660): Substantive discussion of Romans 14, especially 14:1-6.

(Rom 14:1-6)

IP1:385 (1660): [long discussion of Rom 14:1-6, especially 5f] Even in the apostles' days, Christians were too apt to strive after a wrong unity and uniformity in outward practices and observations, and to judge one another unrighteously in these things. And mark; it is not the different practice from one another that breaks the peace and unity, but the judging of one another because of the different practices. He that keeps not a day, may unite in the same Spirit, in the same life, in the same love with him that keeps a day; and he who keeps a day, may unite in heart and soul with the same Spirit and life in him who keeps not a day; but he that judgeth the other because of either of these, errs from the Spirit, from the love, from the life, and so breaks the bond of unity.

(Rom 14:1)

MFU 271 (1659): So the eternal God open your hearts, and your understandings, that you may read and understand, and walk in the light as he is in the light, where the blood of Jesus Christ cleanseth from all sin, and where the fellowship if felt one with another [1 Jn 1:7], which is out of all jealousies and doubtful disputations [Rom 14:1], for that draws a veil; and the apostle saith he that doubts is damned [Rom 14:23].

(Rom 14:4)

[Other texts citing Rom 14:4: GF5:213 (John 8:34)]

IP2:163f (1661): ...we cannot but earnestly desire in our hearts, and pray to the Lord for.... Universal liberty for all sorts to worship God, according as Christ shall open men's eyes to see the truth, and according as he shall persuade their hearts by his Spirit; who is every man's master in religion, to whom they must stand or fall in all they do therein. Rom 14:4.

(Rom 14:5)

GF4:280 (1661): Therefore, moderation, temperance, and sobriety is good; but persecution was ever blind, and so that doth not foresee, nor see things present; and the apostles' command was, that they should not judge one another about days and meats [Rom 14], but that every one should be persuaded in his own mind [Rom 14:5], that was the counsel of the apostle, which did not say they should persecute and force about such things, ... and he told them that the kingdom of heaven did not stand in meat, drink, and days [Rom 14:17]. And he that in these things served Christ, was accepted of God, and approved of men [Rom 14:18]; therefore they were not accepted that did judge one another about such things....

IP1:484 (1660): "Let every man," saith the apostle, "be fully persuaded in his own mind [Rom 14:5];" take heed of receiving things too soon, take heed of running into practices too soon, take heed of doing what you see others do, but wait for your own particular guidance, and for a full persuasion from God, what is his will concerning you.

(Rom 14:6)

RBA 389, RBAF 343 (1678, XIII.5): ...when the apostle saith (Rom 14:6), "He that regardeth the day, regardeth it unto the Lord," it [cannot] be thence inferred, that the days that some esteemed observed did lay an obligation upon others to do the same: but ... he that "esteemed a day," and placed conscience in keeping it, was to "regard it to the Lord," and so ... was to do it worthily, and if he did it unworthily, he would ... keep it to his own damnation....


14:7 For none of us liveth to himself [T: his own servant (2x)], and no man dieth [GT: neither doth any (T: +of us) die] to himself.      qtext

14:8 For whether [BT: if (2x)] we live, we live unto the Lord [T: to beat the Lord’s will]; and whether we die, we die unto the Lord [T: at the Lord’s will]: whether we live therefore, or die, we are the Lord's.

14:9 For to this end [GT: therefore] Christ both died, and rose, and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and living [G: the dead and the quick; BT: dead and quick] .


(Rom 14:7-9) GF2: 332; GF5: 97

(Rom 14:7) WDS 322

(Rom 14:8) GF5: 6

(Rom 14:8f) GF6: 379

(Rom 14:9) GF3: 179; GF5: 220


(Rom 14:7)

[Other texts citing Rom 14:7: WDS 322 (John 5:25)]


14:10 But why dost thou [BT: +then] judge [G: condemn] thy brother? or why dost thou set at nought [GBT: despise] thy brother? for we shall all stand [G: appear; BT: be brought] before the judgment seat of Christ.      qtext

14:11 For it is written, As [ T: +truly as] I live, saith the Lord, every knee [BT: all knees] shall bow to me, and every tongue [GBT: all tongues] shall confess [B: give praise; T: give a knowledge] to God.      qtext

[Rom 14:11: cf Isa 45:23, Phil 2:10f]

14:12 So then every one of us shall give account of himself to God.      qtext

14:13 Let us not therefore judge one another any more: but judge this rather [G: use your judgment rather in this] , that no man put a stumblingblock or an occasion to fall in his brother's way [G: before his brother].      qtext


(Rom 14:10-12) IP2: 20 ; WPR 224; WPT 25

(Rom 14:10) MFU 97, 268; JN3: 593 (WT), 709n (RR); IP1: 385; HPS 459 (MF)

(Rom 14:11) GF3: 205, 278; GF5: 159; GF6: 50; MFS 31; MFU 119, 239; JN2: 235; JN3: 134; IP1: 36, 172; IP2: 146; RBA 462; RBAF 419 [cf Isa 45:23, Phil 2:10f]

(Rom 14:12) GF8: 140 [344]; JN1: 98

(Rom 14:13) GF4: 280; GF7: 109 [109], 114 [116], 179 [189], 219f [217]; GF8: 31 [281], 232 [384]; JWJM 220


(Rom 14:10)

[Other texts citing Rom 14:10: MFU 97 | HPS 459 (Mat 7:4f), JN3:593 (Mar 3:17)]

IP1:385 (1660): This was the apostle's rule, for every one to perform singly to the Lord what he did, and not for one to meddle with the light of conscience of another (undervaluing his brother, or judging him because his light and practices differed from his, Rom 14:10), but every one to keep close to their own measure of light, even to that proportion of faith [Rom 12:6] and knowledge, which God of his mercy hath bestowed on them.

(Rom 14:11)

GF5:159 (1675): So as it is said in Isaiah aforesaid, "every knee shall bow, and every tongue shall swear [Isa 45:23]"; but in the time of the gospel they shall confess; for if the apostle had said, every tongue shall swear to him, he had contradicted Christ's words, who said "swear not at all [Mat 5:34]", but "every tongue shall confess to God [Rom 14:11];" so swear not by God, and perform their oath to the Lord now in the time of the gospel. So Christ performed God's oath [Heb 6:13-16], and took away the oath of God amongst men, that they were to swear by the Lord, and set up yea and nay instead of it [Mat 5:37].

MFS 31 (1660): So it is vain to stand against the God of Heaven or resist his work which he has begun in the earth, which he is working and will work by his Spirit in his day of power. He will make his people willing [Psa 110:3] and subject to him. Every knee must bow to him and every tongue confess to God [Rom 14:11]; for the first Adam was made a living soul [Gen 2:7, 1 Cor 15:45], but the second is the Lord from heaven [1 Cor 15:47], a quickening spirit [1 Cor 15:45], which does quicken and raise up the just unto the resurrection of life [John 5:29].

IP1:35f (1658): Now this worship, as it is out of man's will and time, and in that which continueth, so it is continual. There is a continual praying unto God [1 Th 5:17]. There is a continual blessing and praising of his name, in eating, or drinking, or whatever else is done [1 Cor 10:31]. There is a continual bowing to the majesty of the Lord in every thought, in every word, in every action, though it be in the worldly things and occasions; yet the Spirit of the Lord is seen there, the tongue confesseth him there, the knee boweth to him there [Rom 14:11]. This is the true worship, and this is the rest or sabbath wherein the true worshippers worship.

(Rom 14:12)

JN1:98 (1653): As for abusive words, it is false; it is the abusive mind that speaks, which now appears to scandal the truth. Several of us, who be of one heart [Acts 4:32], meet together sometimes in the market, and sometimes in other places; and if we see pride and drunkenness and be moved to reprove and exhort; see and hear cursed speakers, swearers, moved to reprove and exhort them; or men fighting and brawling, cozening, cheating, deceitful merchandising, lying and dissembling, which we say woe is upon, do you call this abusive? And we bid them repent and turn unto the Lord while they have time, and now to prize it, for the great day of the Lord is coming wherein every one shall give an account [Rom 14:12].

(Rom 14:13)

[Other texts citing Rom 14:13: GF7:109 (Jas 4:11), GF7:114 (Mat 18:15)]

GF8:232 (1683): And condescend to the meek [Rom 12:16], and to every appearance of the Lord God, and make every one's condition in the truth your own; in that you will deny yourselves, and become all to all in the truth, so that none may be hurt in the truth, nor made to stumble [Rom 14:13], nor the blind caused to wander [Deut 27:18], but be directed into the right way, and all as the tender plants may grow together, as the Lord's planting [Isa 61:3], and he watering them, and giving the increase [1 Cor 3:7] and growth to his glory; so that the Lord may have the praise and glory of all his works.

JWJM 220 (1762): Some who keep slaves have doubted as to the equity of the practice; but as they knew men noted for their piety who were in it, this, they say, has made their minds easy. To lean on the example of men in doubtful cases is difficult...; and to quiet our minds by their example may be dangerous to ourselves, and continuing in it prove a stumbling-block [Rom 14:13] to tender-minded people who succeed us, in like manner as their examples are to us.


14:14 I know, and am persuaded by [T: full certified in] the Lord Jesus, that there is nothing unclean [BT: common (3x)] of itself: but to him that esteemeth [GBT: judgeth] any thing [BT: it] to be unclean, to him it is unclean.      qtext

14:15 But if thy brother be grieved with thy [G: for the] meat, now walkest thou not charitably. Destroy not him with thy meat, for whom Christ died.      qtext

14:16 Let not then [GT: Cause not] your good [G: commodity to; T: treasure to] be evil spoken of:

14:17 For the kingdom of God is not meat and drink; but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost.      qtext

14:18 For he that [GT: whosoever] in these things serveth Christ is acceptable to [B: pleaseth; T: pleaseth well] God, and approved [ BT: is commended] of men.      qtext


(Rom 14:14) MFS 89; IP2: 20

(Rom 14:15) IP1: 385; IP4: 313, 314

(Rom 14:17) GFJN 357; GF3: 79, 95, 183, 217, 235, 271, 350, 484; GF4: 213, 321; GF6: 46, 255, 263, 485; GF7: 65 [49], 122 [130], 150 [158], 193, 197 [200], 213 [213], 219,20 [217], 224 [221], 266 [240], 275 [245], 297 [249], 348 [264]; GF8: 33 [284], 35f [286], 46 [297,298], 48 [300], 54 [303], 58 [307], 77 [316], 124 [333], 139 [343], 147 [349], 151 [352], 153 [353], 166, 167 [359], 183 [361], 198 [369]; GFEJ 155, 281, 298, 356; DGA 73; MFU 21; JN1: 149, 266f; JN2: 218, 285f, 314, 320; JN3: 758; IP1: 217; IP2: 200; IP3: 301; IP4: 133, 169, 230, 258, 357; RBA 403; RBAF 356; EQ 108 (JN), 340 (BC); HPS 288; 368 (EB); WPR 63, 64; WPT 332 [may be confl w 1 Cor 4:20]

(Rom 14:17f) GF4: 280


(Rom 14:14)

MFS 89 (to the Ranters, 1656): You bring a scripture in Romans 14:14, where the apostle says, there is "nothing unclean of itself." To you who are unclean, filthy and polluted, there is nothing clean. All is defiled by you, who live in the lust of uncleanness.

(Rom 14:15)

IP4: 314 (167-?) And he that draws another to any practice, before the life in his own particular lead him, doth as much as in him lies to destroy the soul of that person. So the apostle signifies [Rom 14:15], ... in that he saith, "Destroy not him with thy meat," for whom Christ died. So that not an outward uniformity in all things, but a unity in the one Spirit and life, is the necessary thing. And there may be unity, and love, and life, and peace, without a uniformity in practice, further than the Spirit of God teacheth and leadeth his unto.

(Rom 14:17)

[Other texts citing Rom 14:17: GFJN 357 (Luk 9:56) , GF6:485 (Mat 11:10-13), GF7:150 (Mat 5:9), GF7:275 (Mat 6:33), GF8:33 (Rev 21:27), GF8:77 (Rev 14:4), GF8:167 (Mat 5:20), JN1:266f (Rom 1:17), IP4:258 (Rev 21:1), WPR 63 (Heb 11:14-16)]

JN3:758 (1655): all keep low to him who is not of this world [John 8:23], whose kingdom and glory stands not in visibles, nor changeable things, but in righteousness, peace, and joy in that holy Spirit [Rom 14:17] which you have received, that in due time you may all come therein to be sealed, even with the same Spirit of promise [Eph 1:13].

IP4:133 (1671): For the kingdom of God stands not in meats and drinks [Rom 14:17], or any outward washings, nor comes in the way of man's observation [Luk 17:20], but in a heavenly seed, and in the Holy Spirit and power of life; which, happy are they who are made partakers of [Heb 6:4], baptized with [Mat 3:11], and led by [Rom 8:14]. God will try every man's religion, work, and practices, by the true reed or measuring line [Ezek 40:3, Zech 2:1]: blessed is he whose religion will bear that trial!

RBA 403, RBAF 356 (1678, XIII.9): [quotes Rom 14:17] Here the apostle evidently shows that the kingdom of God, or Gospel of Christ, stands not in meats and drinks, and suchlike things, but in righteousness, as by the context doth appear, where he is speaking of the guilt and hazard of judging one another about meats and drinks. So then, if the kingdom of God stand not in them, nor the Gospel, nor work of Christ, then the eating of outward bread and wine can be no necessary part of the Gospel worship, nor any perpetual ordinance of it.

(Rom 14:17f)

[Other texts citing Rom 14:17f: GF4:280 (Rom 14:5)]


14:19 Let us therefore follow after the [GBT: those] things which make for [G: concern] peace, and things wherewith one may edify another.      qtext

14:20 For meat destroy not the work of God [GBT: Destroy not ... for (T: + a little) meat’s sake]. All things indeed are pure; but it is evil for that man who eateth with offence [T: hurt of his conscience].      qtext

14:21 It is good neither to eat flesh, nor to drink wine, nor any thing whereby thy brother stumbleth, or is offended [BT: either falleth], or is made weak.      qtext

14:22 Hast thou faith? have it to [GBT: with] thyself before God. Happy [G: Blessed] is he that condemneth not himself in that thing which he alloweth.

14:23 And he that doubteth [BT: maketh conscience] is damned [G: condemned] if he eat, because he eateth [T: doth it] not of faith: for whatsoever is not of faith is sin.      qtext


(Rom 14:19) GF7: 79 [66], 150 [158], 215 [214], 224 [221], 274 [244]; WPR 34

(Rom 14:20) IP2: 305-311

(Rom 14:21) GF7: 40 [33]

(Rom 14:23) GFJN 45, 559; GF3: 121, 525; GF4: 277, 281, 345; GF6: 345; MFS 89; MFU 41, 165, 271, 433; IP1: 384; IP2: 306; IP3: 91; IP4: 66, 415; RBA 390, 408; RBAF 344, 363; HPS 215


(Rom 14:19)

[Other texts citing Rom 14:19: GF7:150 (Mat 5:9)]

(Rom 14:20)

IP2:305-311 (1662): [Tract entitled "Some observations upon that portion of Scripture, Romans 14:20, for the service of such in this present age, whose eyes and hearts the Lord shall please to open, to see and consider the weight of the truth thereof. With some few weighty words of advice to several sorts of people, according to their different states. ‘For meat destroy not the work of God.’ Rom 14:20."]

(Rom 14:21)

GF7:40 (1653): And wait all in the light for the wisdom by which all things were made [Wis 7:22], with it to use all the Lord's creatures to his glory, (and none to stumble one another about the creatures [Rom 14:21], for that is not from the light, ) for which end they were created, and with the wisdom by which they were made, ye may be kept out of the misuse of them, in the image of God, that ye may come to see, that the "earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof," [Psa 24:1] and the earth may come to yield her increase [Ezek 34:27], and to enjoy her sabbaths [Lev 26:34]....

(Rom 14:23)

[Other texts citing Rom 14:23: GF4:281 (Rom 12:6), MFU 271 (Rom 14:1)]

GFJN 559 (1670): O Friends, consider this [Conventicle] Act, which limits us to five, that but five may meet. Is this to do as ye would be done by [Mat 7:12]? .... We own Christ as well as you, his coming, death, and resurrection, and if we be contrary-minded to you in some things, is not this the apostle's exhortation to wait until God hath revealed it? Doth not he say, "What is not of faith, is sin [Rom 14:23]"? And seeing we have not faith in things which ye would have us to do, would it not be sin in us if we should do contrary to our faith?

IP1:384f (1660): Again, saith the apostle, take heed of doing anything "doubtingly;" be not forward, be not hasty; wait for the leading, wait for the manifestation of the Spirit. Be sure thou receive what thou receivest in faith, and practice what thou practicest in faith; for "whatsoever is not of faith is sin [Rom 14:23]," being an error from the principle of life, which is to guide; and thereby thou losest ground, and dishonorest Christ, and comest under condemnation.

HPS 215 (Mary Penington, 1668): When he [my dear husband] was taken from me I was with child of my dear daughter Gulielma Maria Springett. It was often with me that I should not be able to consent to the thing being done to my child, which I saw no fruit of, and knew to be but a custom which men were engaged in by tradition, not having the true knowledge of that scripture in the last of Galatians, of circumcision or uncircumcision availing nothing, but a new creature [Gal 6:15]. This was often in my mind, and I resolved that it should not be done to my child. When I was delivered of her, I refused to have her sprinkled, which brought great reproach upon me; so I became a by-word [Deut 28:37] and a hissing [cf Jer 29:18] among the people of my own rank in the world; and a strange thing it was thought to be, among my relations and acquaintance. Such as were esteemed able ministers [2 Cor 3:6] (and I formerly delighted to hear,) were sent to persuade me; but I could not consent and be clear. My answer to them was: "He that doubteth is damned [Rom 14:23]."


This page added Nov 2007