1:1 Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto [GT: put apart to preach; B: severed into] the gospel of God,      qtext

1:2 (Which he had promised afore by his prophets in the holy scriptures,)

1:3 Concerning [B: Of; T: that make mention] his Son Jesus Christ our Lord [BT: omit] , which was made [T: begotten] of the seed of David according to [B: after; T: as pertaining to] the flesh;      qtext

1:4 And declared to be the Son of God with power [G: mightily] , according to the spirit of holiness [G: touching the Spirit of sanctification; B: after the spirit that sanctifieth; T: of the holy ghost that sanctifieth] , by the resurrection from the dead [B: + of Jesus Christ our Lord; T: since the time that Jesus Christ our Lord rose again from death] :      qtext

1:5 By whom we have received grace and apostleship, for obedience to the faith among all nations, for his name [GB: that obedience might be given unto the faith in his name, among all the Gentiles (B: heathen); T: to bring all manner heathen people unto obedience of the faith that is in his name] :      qtext

1:6 Among whom are ye also the called of Jesus Christ [T: of the which heathen are ye a part also which are Jesus Christ’s by vocation] :      qtext

1:7 To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints [BT: saints by calling] : Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.


(Rom 1:1-5) MFU 204

(Rom 1:1) JN1: 8 (GF); JN2: 178; RBA 220

(Rom 1:2-6) GF5: 93f

(Rom 1:3) JN2: 436

(Rom 1:3f) GFJN 225; GF4: 68; GF6: 297, 381f; LB (C69, WD37)

(Rom 1:4) GF2: 314; JN2: 80; IP4: 36

(Rom 1:5) IP1: 316; IP2: 8, 20 [cf Rom 16:26]

(Rom 1:6f) GF4: 325

(Rom 1:7) GF5: 295

(Rom 1:7f) IP3: 134


(Rom 1:1-5)

MFU 204 (1656): And again mark thy ignorance of the scripture, who sayest we are in the covenant of works because we teach obedience to the light, whereas the Apostle saith in his epistle which he wrote to the Romans, who was an apostle separated unto the gospel of God [Rom 1:1] Jesus and whom he declared to be the son of God according to the spirit of holiness, by whom we have received grace and apostleship for obedience to the faith [Rom 1:3-5], & this thou callest works.

(Rom 1:1)

JN1:8 (George Fox, 1653): purity and walking in the Spirit doth make a separation from all uncleanness and can "have no fellowship with" them who are "unfruitful workers of darkness" [Eph 5:11]; but there is a separation from them; the one hath fellowship with God, and the other hath fellowship with darkness, which be unfruitful; the one is separated to God [Rom 1:1 (margin: 1:2)], the other is separated from God.

RBA 220 (1678, VIII.9): ... it appears that the apostle personated one not yet come to a spiritual condition in that he saith [Rom 7:14], "But I am carnal, sold under sin." Now is it to be imagined that the apostle Paul, as to his own proper condition when he wrote that epistle, was a carnal man, who in chapter 1 testifies of himself that he was "separated to be an apostle [Rom 1:1], capable to impart to the Romans spiritual gifts [Rom 1:11]"? And (8:2) that "the law of the Spirit of Life in Christ Jesus" had "made him free from the law of sin and death"; so then he was not carnal.

(Rom 1:3f)

[Other texts citing Rom 1:3f: GF4:68 (Rom 4:13-16)]

GFJN 225 ([1655]): the next day I went into the town and had a great deal of discourse with some professors concerning Christ and Truth, one of which denied that christ according to the flesh was of Abraham and that according to the spirit he was declared the son of God, junto whihc I answered that he was of the seed of Abraham and made of the seed of David according to the flesh; and according to the spirit declared to be the son of God as in Romans 1[:3f]. And after, I writ a paper to it.

(Rom 1:4)

IP4:36 (167-): Quest. 6. Is the spirit of the Scribes and Pharisees to be found now in the world? Ans. There is nothing new under the sun [Eccl 1:9]. The spirit of wickedness and deceit is always the same, in all ages and generations; and the Spirit of holiness [Rom 1:4] and truth [John 14:17] is the same also.

(Rom 1:5)

[Other texts citing Rom 1:5: IP1:316 (Rom 12:3)]

IP2:8f (1660): God, in those days, sent his true apostles and ministers with the everlasting gospel [Rev 14:6], which was the word of faith which they preached [Rom 10:8], to gather men of Jerusalem, Judea, and all nations, into the obedience of the faith, Rom 1:5, that he might have a spiritual house [1 Pet 2:5], a spiritual people, to worship him, instead of those outward worshippers whom he then cast off. John 4:23.

(Rom 1:6f)

GF4:325 (1663): And whereas you call christians lay-people, you that be ministers, and in some office, and under some vow or oath; is not this contrary to the apostles, who called the believing christians saints, and spiritual? And are not all the true believers of the church, such as are passed from death to life [John 5:24], and such as are born of God? And the apostle Paul when he writes to the old Romans, he doth not call them lay-people, as the Romans call christians now; but Paul called them, "Beloved of God called to be saints," and that they were called of Christ Jesus [Rom 1:6f]; read Romans the first, and see whether he called the Romans lay-people.


1:8 First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for you all, that your faith is spoken of [GBT: published] throughout the whole [BT: all the] world.

1:9 For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his Son, that without ceasing I make mention of you always in my prayers [GB: to v 10] ;      qtext

1:10 Making request, if [GT: beseeching that; B: praying that] , by any [GB: some] means now at length [GT: one time or other; B: at the last, one time or other] I might have a prosperous journey by the will of God [T: a prosperous journey...might fortune me] to come unto you.

1:11 For I long to see you, that I may impart unto [GBT: bestow among] you some spiritual gift, to the end ye may be established [G: that you might be strengthened; B: that ye might be stablished; T: to strength[en] you withal] ;      qtext

1:12 That is, that I may be comforted [BT: might have consolation] together with you by the mutual faith both of you and me [B: each with other’s faith, yours and mine; T: though the common faith which both ye and I have] .

1:13 Now I would not have you ignorant [G: that ye should not be ignorant; BT: that ye should know] , brethren, that oftentimes I purposed to come unto you, (but was let hitherto,) that I might have some fruit among you also, even as among other Gentiles.

1:14 I am debtor both to the Greeks, and to the Barbarians [T: them which are no Greeks] ; both to the wise [T: learned] , and to the unwise [T: unlearned] .      qtext

1:15 So, as much as in me is, I am ready to preach the gospel to you that are at Rome also.


(Rom 1:7f) IP3: 134

(Rom 1:9) GF5: 253; MFS 26; RBA 460; RBAF 417

(Rom 1:11) RBA 220, 365; RBAF 318

(Rom 1:14f) MFU 222


(Rom 1:9)

GF5:253 (1676): And did not the apostle say, in Rom 1:9, that he "served God in the spirit." And is it not the duty of all christians, to serve God in the spirit? And is not that a sufficient rule that will teach them to know how to serve God (to wit, his holy spirit), by which spirit they may know God, and Christ, and the scriptures, and know one another in the spirit, and in it have fellowship, and so keep the unity of the spirit, in the bond of peace [Eph 4:3]....?

(Rom 1:11)

[Other texts citing Rom 1:11: RBA 220 (Rom 1:1)]

RBA 365, RBAF 318 (1678, XII.8): Obj. ...they say, baptism ... must be understood with water, because it is the action of the apostles, and so cannot be the baptism of the Spirit, which is the work of Christ, and his Grace; not of man, &c. Ans. ... though it be Christ by his Grace that gives spiritual gifts, yet the apostle [Rom 1:11] speaks of his "imparting to them spiritual gifts," and he tells the Corinthians that he had "begotten them through the Gospel" (1 Cor 4:15), and yet to beget people unto the faith is the work of Christ [etc.];... so may also baptizing with the Spirit be expressed as performable by man, as the instrument, though the work of Christ's Grace be needful to concur thereunto; so that it is no absurdity to say that the apostle did administer the baptism of the Spirit.

(Rom 1:14f)

MFU 222 (1657): And you that are made partakers, of this free gospel of Jesus, and that you are made ministers of the word [Luk 1:2], of his power [Heb 1:3] and reconciliation [2 Cor 5:9], you are debtors, both to the Greeks, and to the Barbarians, both to the wise, and to the unwise [Rom 1:14], so preach the gospel freely to every creature [2 Cor 11:7/Mar 16:15], & so you will be free from the blood of all men [Acts 20:26; cf Ezek 3:17-21, 33:4-6], so God almighty be your strength, wisdom, and counselor [Job 12:13], and clothe you with his armor of light [Rom 13:12]


1:16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth [BT: all that believe] ; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek [G: Grecian; T: gentile] .      qtext

1:17 For therein [GBT: by it] is the righteousness of God revealed [GB: opened] from faith to faith: as it is written, The just shall live by faith.      qtext

[Rom 1:17 cf Hab 2:4]


(Rom 1:16-21) WPR 316; WPT 125

(Rom 1:16-19) RBA 144-146; RBAF 103f

(Rom 1:16) [too many to list] GFJN 83, 115, 174, 281, 445; GFEJ 309; GF3: 39, 41,77, 90, 102, 130, 150, 154, 197, 202, 370, 437, 499, 555; GF4: 42, 65, 73, 152, 187, 229, 241, 272, 288, 299, 345, 361; GF5: 142, 221, 236, 295, 340; GF6: 18, 245, 420; GF7: 122 [130], 227 [222]; GF8: 71 [271], 172 [360], 183 [361]; MFS 37; MFU 162, 167, 230, 340, 375; JN2: 67, 80, 166; JN3: 46; IP2: 200; IP3: 394; IP4: 50, 71, 138, 262; IPL 14; RBA 5, 144; RBAF 103; EQ 292 (GF), 323 (BC); HPS 321; 386, 390 (EB); WPR 312; WPT 103; SBD 17; JSS 47; WTG 163 (EH)

(Rom 1:16f) GF3: 236; GF5: 94; GF6: 390

(Rom 1:17) GF5: 233, 239, 449; GF6: 386, 409; GF7: 17 [2], 203 [206], 323 [262]; GF8: 27 [279], 124 [333], 133 [342], 216 [377], 218 [378]; DGA 89, 211; JN1: 51, 267; JN2: 92; JN3: 59, 69, 70f, 72, 81, 88, 118, 122, 124; IP3: 205, 207, 390, 407; IP4: 203, 232, 245; WPR 151; WPT 112 [cf Hab 2:4, Gal 3:11, Heb 10:38]


(Rom 1:16-19)

RBA 144-146, RBAF 103f (1678, V/VI.23): [Substantive discussion of Rom 1:16-19 in relation to the "universal and saving light"; see below under Rom 1:16 and 1:18f for excerpts ]

(Rom 1:16)

[Other texts citing Rom 1:16: GF3:130 (John 11:9f), GF3:555 (John 16:12), GF7:122 (John 3:13), GF7:227 (Rom 1:21), GF8:71 (Gen 3:15), GF8:172 (Heb 7:11), GF8:183 (Rom 3:27), MFU 167 (Rom 13:2), MFU 230 (Mat 28:18), HPS 321f (Rev 14:6f)]

GF3:154 (1659): This I say, none are ministers of the spirit, nor in the spirit, nor have the spirit of Christ, nor the holy ghost, nor the spirit of the Father speaking in them, but who have that which is infallible, and are in that which is infallible. And they are in the lying spirit [1 Ki 22:22f] and hypocrisy that are out of it, as are all the false spirits that are gone out into rhe world [1 Jn 4:1]. So ye do well to confess that ye have not the infallible spirit; ye are not infallible, and so no ministers of the spirit. And how can they but delude people that are not infallible, and are none of Christ's, which have not that spirit [Rom 8:9] which is infallible, and are not ministers of the gospel, which is the power of God [Rom 1:16], which is infallible?

MFU 340 (1661): to them that believe in the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ, it is the wisdom of God, & the power of God [Rom 1:16/1 Cor 1:24]. And this is that that gives you pure freedom, from the entanglements of this world, from the engagements of the earth, from outward preferment or advantages, which are but all the snares of Satan.

JN2:67 (1655): you cannot serve two masters saith Christ, me and Mammon [Mat 6:24]; now all that believe in Christ believes this and so denies the works of the devil [1 Jn 3:8] and follows Christ, and these never want power, for they have him who is the great power of God to salvation [Rom 1:16], and as they grow in the knowledge of Christ, so they know power and victory, and their faith is that which overcomes the world and the devil [1 Jn 5:4].

IP4:137f (1671): Paul's gospel is the gospel of Christ, the everlasting gospel [Rev 14:6], the one gospel, which is the power which saves [Rom 1:16], which is manifested in the new covenant within [Jer 31:31-33]; which is hid in them that are lost, but revealed, in some measure, in all that are saved. Wherever the new covenant is, there is the gospel; wherever the law is in any measure written within, there is somewhat of the gospel.

RBA 144, RBAF 103 (1678, V/VI.23): this saving spiritual Light is the Gospel , which the apostle saith expressly is preached "in every creature under heaven"; even that very "Gospel whereof Paul was made a minister" (Col 1:23). For the Gospel is not a mere declaration of good things being the "power of God unto salvation, to all those that believe" (Rom 1:16). Though the outward declaration of the Gospel be taken sometimes for the Gospel; yet it is but figuratively and by a metonymy . For to speak properly, the Gospel is this inward power and life which preacheth glad tidings in the hearts of all men, offering salvation unto them and seeking to redeem them from their iniquities, and therefore it is said to be preached "in every creature under heaven"; whereas there are many thousands of men and women to whom the outward gospel was never preached....

JSS 47 (17–): "The gospel is the power of God [Rom 1:16];" and no other power, no preaching but what is in that power, can turn souls from darkness to light [Acts 26:18]....

(Rom 1:17)

[Other texts citing Rom 1:17: GF6:386 (Heb 12:1f), GF7:203 (1Jn 5:4), GF8:218 (Heb 10:38), WPR 151 (Jude 1:3)]

JN1:266f (1654): it is only he that is brought up out of the death to reign over it, whose heart is come out of the unrighteous mammon [Luk 16:11], who is entered into the kingdom of righteousness, joy and peace [Rom 14:17]; and as you arise out of the earthly bondage you shall witness the glorious liberty [Rom 8:21] and so come to know your own measures, everyone in particular to improve it, and not to boast above it in another man's line [2 Cor 10:16]; and so you will come to see by what power you stand in your warfare, how far you are conquerors, and who is your enemy at present, and so be able to give an account in yourselves of your faith and how you grow from faith to faith [Rom 1:17].

IP3:206f (1672): What was Christ's righteousness? Was it not the life, the virtue, the Spirit of the Father in him, he being one with it, in the faith of it, and in the obedience to it? And is not the righteousness of the head and the body the same, communicated from the head to the body:? Are they not all of one, and the righteousness one and the same in both? So much of Christ's Spirit, so much of his righteousness; and out of his Spirit, out of his righteousness for evermore. For the righteousness of the Son is revealed, and communicated from faith to faith [Rom 1:17], in his Spirit; and they are covered with the garment of righteousness and salvation [Isa 61:10], who are covered with his Spirit.


1:18 For the wrath of God is revealed [BT: appeareth] from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold [GBT withhold] the truth in unrighteousness;      qtext

1:19 Because that which [T: Seeing what] may be known of God is manifest in [BT: among] them; for God hath shewed it unto them.      qtext


(Rom 1:18-32) RBA 119; RBAF 84

(Rom 1:18-22) IP3: 477

(Rom 1:18) GFJN 90; GF4: 124; GF5: 12; GF8: 169 [360]; JN1: 68, 199; JN2: 72, 146; IP4: 434; RBA 209, 224; RBAF 166; HPS 50, 411; EQ 158, 546; WPR 37; WPT 52

(Rom 1:18f) GF4: 173; RBA 145f; RBAF 103f; EQ 325 (BC); HPS 322

(Rom 1:19-2:15) IP2: 25

(Rom 1:19-32) WPR 55, 78

(Rom 1:19-28) LB (Q22, Q78, Q82)

(Rom 1:19-25) DGA 89, 124

(Rom 1:19-23) IP3: 109

(Rom 1:19-21) GF4: 395

(Rom 1:19) GFJN 281; GF3: 55, 346, 417, 546, 551, 582; GF4: 132, 406; GF5: 235; GF7: 19 [5], 43 [35], 92 [81], 103 [100], 115 [116], 142 [150], 224 [221]; GF8: 128 [336], 250 [392], many others; DGA 82; MFS 53; MFU 75; JN2: 61, 247, 278, 443, 445; JN3: 30, 395; IP1: 225; IP4: 61, 136, 181; EQ 308; HPS 334; 400 (EB); WPR 311, 322, 611, 615, 617; WPT 74, 101, 149, 153, 235, 248, 264, 275, 295, 331; JSS 18 [confl w Col 4:6; cf 1 Jn 5:9f]

(Rom 1:19f) GF3: 114, 358; 515; JN1: 203; IP4: 135


(Rom 1:18-32)

[Other texts citing Rom 1:18-32: RBA 119 (Rom 1:28)]

(Rom 1:18)

[Other texts citing Rom 1:18: EQ 158 (John 8:46), HPS 411 (Rom 6:4), WPR 37 (John 12:36)]

GF8:169 (1679): All the faithful men and women are to be ... as Adam and Eve, before they fell, meet-helps [Gen 2:18], in the image of God [Gen 1:27], and in the power of God, with which they were to subdue the earth [Gen 1:28]: in which power and image of God, they were not only to subdue the earth, but subdue unrighteousness and all ungodliness [Rom 1:18], and that which they know doth dishonour God [Rom2:23].

JN2:68f (1653): And do you think that ever God will reveal himself to this [carnal] wisdom any other ways than in wrath from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness [Rom 1:18] with this wisdom? Nay, the secrets of the Lord are with them that fear him [Psa 25:14], but there is no fear of the Lord where this wisdom ruleth.

RBA 209 (1678, VIII.4): [the doctrine that the saints nor can nor ever will be free of sinning in this life] is inconsistent with the justice of God. For since he requires purity from his children, and commands them to abstain from every iniquity...; and since "his wrath is revealed against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men [Rom 1:18]," it must needs follow that he hath capacitated man to answer his will, or else that he requires more than he has given power to perform: which is to declare him openly unjust, and with the slothful servant, to be a "hard master" [Mat 25:24].

(Rom 1:18f)

RBA 146, RBAF 104 (1678, V/VI 23): The prophet Micah... declares (Mic 6:8): "He hath showed thee, O man, what is good. And what doth the Lord require of thee but to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God?" He doth not say God requires till he hath first assured that he hath showed unto them. Now because this is showed unto all men and manifest in them [Rom 1:19], therefore, saith the apostle, is the "wrath of God revealed against them for that they hold the Truth in unrighteousness [Rom 1:18]"; that is the measure of Truth, the Light, the Seed, the Grace in them; for that they "hide the talent in the earth [Mat 25:18,25]," that is in the earthly and unrighteous part in their hearts, and suffer it not to bring forth fruit but to be choked with the sensual cares of this life, the fear of reproach, and the deceitfulness of riches [Mat 13:22]....

(Rom 1:19-2:15)

[Other texts citing Rom 1:19-2:15: IP2:25 (Rom 9:4)]

(Rom 1:19-25)

DGA 124 (1986): To paraphrase Romans 1:19-25, we might say that [for Fox] bibliolatry exchanges the glory of God's incorruptible Word for the image of corruptible words [1:23] and the truth of God for a lie, by worship and serving the creature more than the Creator of of all things [1:25]. Professing to be wise, the bibliolater becomes foolish [1:22]. Against the vast weight of English Protestantism, Fox demands that that which may be known of God, his Word, is manifest within all men and women [1:19], the words of scripture spring from this inward Word, as must the words and acts of all Christians. Those who shun or deny this inward revelation are "without excuse" [Rom 1:20].

(Rom 1:19) [Source of phrase "that of God in every one", confl with 1 Jn 5:9f]

[Other texts citing Rom 1:19: GF3:346 (Luk 11:52), GF3:552 (Rom 1:28), GF7:19 (John 10:5), GF7:43 (Mat 13:13-15), GF8:128 (1 Pet 3:21), MFU 75 (Luk 10:41f), IP1:225 (Rom 1:20f), IP4:136 (Rom 1:22), IP4:181f (John 1:5), WPT 153 (Rom 1:28), JSS 18 (Rom 16:25f)]

MFS 52f (1660): The testimony that we have borne has been chiefly against the priests, teachers and professors of these nations, that are out of the life and power, for when it pleased the Lord to reveal his Son to us [Gal 1:15f], we saw them to be absolute deceivers of the people and betrayers of their souls, for they lead them wholly from that of God in them, to the letter of the scripture without them and to their own inventions, imaginations, and meanings which they speak, who are not taught of God [Isa 54:13] themselves.... The apostle says that which may be known of God is manifested in them, for God shows it unto them [Rom 1:19]. No people can retain God in their knowledge, and worship him as God, but first they must come to that of God in them.

JN2:443 (1655): The chief priests and hirelings and persecutors did not worship the same God Christ and the saints did, though they said God was their Father, and though they prayed to him, yet not knowing him in them they worshipped they know not what [John 4:22], for saith the Spirit, that which may be know of God is manifest in men (Rom 1:19).

WPR 311, WPT 101 (1674): For as the true knowledge of God is life eternal [John 17:3], so, whatever may be known of God is manifested within [Rom 1:19], which manifestation cannot properly be without the Light, whose peculiar property it is to discover, reveal or manifest the mind and will of God to mankind; as saith the apostle, For whatsoever doth make manifest is Light [Eph 5:13].


1:20 For the invisible things of him from [B: through] the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by [G: considered in] the things that are made [GBT: his works] , even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are [G: to the intent that they should be] without excuse:      qtext

1:21 Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain [BT: waxed full of vanities] in their imaginations [G: thoughts] , and their foolish heart was [T: hearts were] darkened [G: full of darkness; BT: blinded]      qtext.

1:22 Professing themselves to be [BT: When they counted themselves] wise, they became fools,      qtext

1:23 And [G: For they] changed [GBT: turned] the glory of the uncorruptible [BT: immortal] God into an image made like to [GT: to the similitude of the image of; B: unto an image, made not only after the similitude of a] corruptible [BT: mortal] man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things [B: creeping beasts; T: serpents]      qtext.


(Rom 1:20) GFJN 60, 326; GF4: 28; DGA 84A; JN2: 12; 269 (RS), 286; IP2: 32; IP4: 34; WTG 312 (AM)

(Rom 1:20f) IP1: 225

(Rom 1:21-25) GF4: 384f; IP1: 121; IP3: 277

(Rom 1:21) GF7: 227 [222]; GF8: 16 [270], 263 [397] ; GFEJ 439; MFS 91; MFU 69, 160, 169, 200, 359; JN1: 268; JN2: 247, 445; IP3: 206, 276; IP4: 135f; HPS 319, 393, 516f; WPR 78; WPT 146, 236

(Rom 1:22) GF6: 9; IP4: 136

(Rom 1:23) GF4: 367; JN2: 231; WPR 321; WPT 145


(Rom 1:20)

GFJN 326 ([1658]): And then the magistrates and all came out, and some heard and some walked by. So the Lord's power came over them all, and they were left without excuse [Rom 1:20], whether they would hear or forbear [Ezek 2:5].

JN2:286 (1655): is God become as blind as you, who cannot judge but by carnal appearance, and will you limit him to yourselves [Psa 78:41]? that eye never saw? Prophets nor prophecies, Christ nor apostles; but this is all you know of God or his word, his judgments and kingdom, who are blind and deaf as to the invisible [Rom 1:20]: and so the visible and carnal judges, judging God to be like yourselves, imagines self to be in the kingdom; but the blind and deaf comes not there in that state.

WTG 312 (Ann Moore, 1758): Also that the wicked and rebellious should be warned that in the day of account they might be left without excuse [Rom 1:20].

(Rom 1:20f)

IP1:225 (1659): For the same Lord God Almighty, which confounded the Heathens' Babel [Gen 11:1-9] (when their sins and vain confidence were ripe), which they built to prevent any future flood (for though they once had the true knowledge of God from an inward light, Rom 1:20 [text: 1:21], yet they soon left that, "not liking to retain God in their knowledge", ver. 28, but running out into imaginations, and so building a Babel, whereby their foolish hearts became darkened [Rom 1:21] to the light which God had made to shine in them; which showed what might be known of God unto them, ver. 19); ... whereby they likewise thought to prevent "the overflowing scourge" from coming near them, Isa 28:15; the same God will overthrow the Christians' Babel, which they have built from the prophets' and [apostles'?] words (by their own imaginations and conceivings, in the high-mindedness, out of the fear [Rom 11:20]), whereby they think to escape the deluge of eternal wrath. (For their city also shall be thrown down "with violence," and shall be "found no more at all," Rev 18:21.)

(Rom 1:21)

[Other texts citing Rom 1:21: GF8:263 (Rom 1:24), MFU 200 (Mat 24:30), HPS 393 (Mat 6:23), HPS 516f (John 10:16), WPR 78 (Mat 21:30)]

GF7:227 (1662): The fellowship of the gospel, the power of God [Phil 1:5, Rom 1:16], expels away all that which hath darkened the understanding [Eph 4:18], darkened the mind, darkened the heart [Rom 1:21]; and by the power of God life and immortality are brought to light [2 Tim 1:10] in you....

JN1:268 (John Whitehead, 1654): Now there is balm in Gilead, and a physician in your souls [Jer 8:22], see therefore that your health be recovered by him, and that you neglect not so great salvation [Heb 2:3]; for notwithstanding your vain imaginations [Rom 1:21] and hard thoughts of the Lord, yet his arms of love are stretched out still, but how long you know not; therefore be not secure and careless but strive to enter in at the strait gate [Mat 7:13f]....

IP3:206 (1672): Who is this that darkeneth counsel by words without knowledge [Job 8:32], and runneth out from the truth into his own imaginations [Gal 5:7/Rom 1:21]? (Continued under Rom 1:17)

(Rom 1:22)

GF6:8f (1679): And Eve saw that the tree was good for food [Gen 3:6]; so her eye went out. Now, can that be good for food, which by eating of it, brought death, as God had forewarned them [Gen 2:17]? But the serpent said, "Ye shall not surely die, but be as gods [Gen 3:4f]." And the woman saw the fruit was pleasant to the eyes, and to be desired, and would make one wise [Gen 3:6]. So her ear went out to hearken to that lying doctrine. But how could that be pleasant to the eye, or be desirable, or make wise, when by eating of it they would surely die? So thinking to be made wise, they became fools [Rom 1:22], which brought the rod upon the back of them [Prov 26:3], which also comes upon all their posterity in the fall.

IP4:136 (1671): Now, if they had not professed themselves to be wise [Rom 1:22], but kept low to the manifestation of God's Spirit, and denied their own wisdom, they might have been truly wise; but running out from the measure of the gift [Eph 4:7], into their own wisdom and thoughts, they became fools as to the true wisdom, and wandered into gross idolatrous conceptions, and brought great judgements from God upon themselves. And this was their condemnation [John 3:19] (not that the light of God had not shone in their hearts [2 Cor 4:6]; not that that which might be known of God was not manifest in them [Rom 1:19]; but) that they loved their own dark wisdom, thoughts, and conceivings, more than the manifestation of the light of God's Spirit within [John 3:19].

(Rom 1:23)

JN2:231 (1655): ...the eternal inheritance which none can come to but who receives his witness in the light, a cross to all the word's lovers, and its glory. So if you can receive him you may; if not, this I say to you: your expectation will fail, who look for his appearance in the worldly glory, or after your imaginations, who judge him to be like yourselves or such a one as you would have him, who have changed your glory for fading things [Rom 1:23].


1:24 Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts [GT: their hearts’ lusts, unto uncleanness] , to dishonour [GBT: defile] their own bodies between themselves:      qtext

1:25 Who changed [GT: turned] the truth of God [BT: his truth] into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature [T: creatures] more than [G: forsaking] the Creator [T: maker] , who is blessed for ever. Amen.      qtext

1:26 For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections [BT: shameful lusts] : for even their women did change the natural use into that which is against nature [T: unto the unnatural] :      qtext

1:27 And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward another; men with men [GT: man with man] working that which is unseemly [GBT: wrought filthiness] , and receiving in themselves that recompence [BT: the reward] of their error which was meet [BT: as it was according] .


(Rom 1:24) GF7: 156 [168]; GF8: 263 [397]

(Rom 1:25-32) WPR 71

(Rom 1:25) GF3: 56, 369; GF4: 50, 99, 196, 199; GF6: 4; GF7: 311 [260], 284 [249], 323 [262]; DGA 177; JN1:151, 383; JN2: 264, 562, 599; JN3: 51, 95, 114, 136, 301; 726 (RR); IP3: 219; JWJM 210

(Rom 1:25f) GF7: 72 [56]

(Rom 1:26) WPT 153


(Rom 1:24)

GF8:263 (1684): And Christ not only forbids adultery, but lust also [Mat 5:27f]. Matt. v. And again Christ saith, "The cares of the world, and the love of other things choke the word, and it becomes unfruitful to them [Mark 4:19]." And you may see what became of such, as the apostle speaks of in Rom. i. 21. who, when they knew God, glorified him not, as God; neither were thankful [Rom 1:21]. How at last "God gave them up," when they forsook him, through the lust of their hearts [Rom 1:24]. And there you may see what evils they run into.

(Rom 1:25-32)

WPR 71 (1669): to one who internally knows God, and hath a sense of his blessed presnce, all such recreations [p.70: playhouses, balls, masques, treats, cards, dice, check, &c.] are death [margin: Rom 1:25-32]; yea, more dangerously evil, and more apt to steal away the mind from its heavenly exercise than grosser impieties....

(Rom 1:25)

[Other texts citing Rom 1:25: GF7:284 (Rom 16:20), JN2:599 (Heb 12:4)]

GF7:311 (1668): So it is plain, none are free but by the truth, and all in the truth are free men. And all out of the truth, are slaves in old Adam, and slaves to sin and satan, and to his will-worship, and to their own self-righteousness, and to their rudiments, doctrines, and traditions [Col 2:8]; serving divers lusts, pleasures [Tit 3:3], and corruptions, and serving the creatures more than the Creator, who is God blessed for ever [Rom 1:25], and serving the desires of their own minds; and so as slaves are kept in bondage; all in prison all in the bonds of death and jaws of death; for who are out of truth are no free men.

IP3:219 (1672): Oh that he could look back (in a true sense) and see how he hath wrested those scriptures [2 Pet 3:16] ... after his own imaginations: and, indeed, in this spirit, men cannot but turn the precious truth of God into a lie [Rom 1:25]; that is, as to themselves as to their own knowledge of it.

JWJM 210 (1762): Real idolatry is to pay that attention to a creature which is known to be due only to the true God [Rom 1:25].

(Rom 1:25f)

GF7: 72 [56] (1654): take heed to that which calls your minds out of the vile affections [Rom 1:26], and the world's lusts, to have them renewed; the same will turn your minds to God, the same light will set your affections above [Col 3:2], and bring you to wait for the pure wisdom from, God from on high, that it may be justified.... So, the Lord God Almighty be with you all, and keep you all in his strength and power to his glory, over all the world, whose minds are called out of it, and turned to God, to worship the creator, and serve him, and not the creature [Rom 1:25]. And the light of God, that calls your minds out of the creatures, turns them to God, to an endless being, joy, and peace.

(Rom 1:26)

[Other texts citing Rom 1:26: WPR 153 (Rom 1:28)]


1:28 And even as they did not like [GB: as they regarded not; T: as it seemed not good unto them] to retain God in their knowledge [G: acknowledge God; B: know God; T: be a-known of God] , [GBT: +even so] God gave them over to [GBT: delivered them up unto] a reprobate [BT: lewd] mind, to [BT: that they should] do those things which are not convenient [BT: were not comely] ;      qtext

1:29 Being filled with [GBT: full of] all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness [B: craftiness], covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity [G: taking all things in the evil part; BT: evil conditioned] ; whisperers,      qtext

1:30 Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful [GT: doers of wrong] , proud, boasters, inventors [BT: bringers up] of evil things, disobedient to parents [BT: father and mother] ,      qtext

1:31 [G: 1:30b] Without understanding, covenantbreakers, without natural affection [T: unloving] , implacable [G: such as can never be appeased; BT: truce breakers] , unmerciful [GT: merciless] :      qtext

1:32 [G: 1:31] Who knowing [GT: Which men, though they knew] the judgment [G: Law; BT: righteousness] of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but have pleasure in [G: favour] them that do them.


(Rom 1:28-32) GF5: 5

(Rom 1:28) GF3: 241, 552; JN2: 445; IP1: 225; JN3: 96; 572 (TS); IP3: 258; IP4: 136; RBA 119; RBAF 84; WPR 316; WPT 125, 153, 224

; SBD 86

(Rom 1:29-31) JN2: 73

(Rom 1:29) GF4: 203; GF8: 57 [307]; JN2: 247, 264

(Rom 1:30) JN1: 483; IP1: 26

(Rom 1:31) GF4: 364, 365; GF8: 220 [380], 240f [389] [cf 2 Tim 3:3]


(Rom 1:28)

[Other texts citing Rom 1:28: IP1:225 (Rom 1:20f), SBD 86 (John 2:1-11)]

GF3:552 (1659): And there are none upon the earth that come to worship God in spirit and in truth [John 4:23f] but they first come to own that of God in them [Rom 1:19]; and there are none upon the earth that are like to retain God in their knowledge, nor his covenant, while their minds are reprobated [Rom 1:28] from that of God in them.

IP3:257f (1672): For there are some that rebel against the Light [Job 24:13], and they dwell in a dry land [Psa 68:6]. There were some that did always resist and vex God's Spirit [Acts 7:51/Isa 63:10], and the Lord's Spirit ceased striving with them [Gen 6:3], and gave them up to a reprobate sense and judgment [Rom 1:28] concerning the things of God [1 Cor 2:11].

RBA 119, RBAF 84 (V/VI.12): ...many men may outlive this day [of visitation], after which there may be no possibility of salvation to them, and God justly suffers them to be hardened, as a just punishment of their unbelief, and even raises them up as instruments of wrath, and makes them a scourge one against another. Whence, to men in this condition may be fitly applied those scriptures which are abused to prove that God incites men necessarily to sin: this is notably expressed by the apostle [Rom 1:17-32], but especially v. 28, "And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient."

WPT 153 (1674, Mod Eng): [ Penn quotes Plutarch:] "To deny mankind’s ancient faith–the natural belief planted in all thinking souls–is to overthrow the strong and everlasting foundation of principle." This is undoubtedly a very strong and sensible argument for an inward divine principle. [Penn lists Rom 1: 19, 28, 26 in a marginal note.]

(Rom 1:29)

GF8:57 (1674): the power of God has always been your keeper [1 Pet 1:5], and will be unto the day of salvation [2 Cor 6:2]; which power of God is over all, yea, over the power of the devil, the waster and destroyer [Isa 54:16?], who makes the world like a wilderness [Isa 14:17], and fills it with unrighteousness [Rom 1:29], death, darkness, and cruelty.

(Rom 1:30)

IP1:26 (1658): [continued from under Mat 24:15]: And as the light breaks forth, and their eyes come to be opened, they will see that they have been and are haters of God [Rom 1:30], and of his life and spirit; but lovers of the world [1 Jn 2:15], and of such a religion as suits the worldly spirit.

(Rom 1:31)

GF4:364 (1668) And the apostles, in Rom 1[:31], speaks of such that be without natural affections, as ... has not affections to nature, but will destroy, prison and persecute the workmanship of God's hands, and God's creatures he has created, about their worships and thier religion; and such as are without natural affections are such as can never be appeased, nor be merciful, but merciless, and such destroy the good nature in themselves, by which they have not natural affections to their natural brethren; for Cain destroyed the natural affections in himself, before he destroyed his natural brother [Gen 4:4-9]; for nature is one, and would not destroy itself, and it hath affections to itself; [more under (Gen 3:1-6)]


2:1 Therefore thou art inexcusable, O man, whosoever thou art that judgest [G: condemnest (3x)] : for wherein thou judgest another, thou condemnest thyself; for thou that judgest doest the same [BT: even the selfsame] things.      qtext

2:2 But we are sure [G: know] that the judgment of God is according to truth against them which commit such things.

2:3 And thinkest thou this, O man, that judgest [G: condemnest] them which do such things, and doest the same [B: + thyself; T: even the very same] , that thou shalt escape the judgment of God?

2:4 Or despisest thou the riches of his goodness [G: bountifulness] and forbearance [GBT: patience] and longsuffering [BT: long sufferance] ; not knowing that the goodness [G: bountifulness; BT: kindness] of God leadeth thee to repentance?      qtext

2:5 But after thy hardness and [B: stubbornness and; T: hard] impenitent heart [GBT: heart that cannot repent] treasurest up unto thyself [G: heapest up as a treasure unto thyself; B: heapest unto thyself; T: heapest thee together the treasure of] wrath against the day of wrath [T: vengeance] and revelation of [GB: declaration of; T: when shall be opened] the righteous [G: just] judgment of God;      qtext

2:6 Who will render to [GBT: reward] every man according to his deeds [G: works] :      qtext


(Rom 2) IP3: 249; IPL 50; RBA 161; RBAF 116; WPR 306

(Rom 2:1) GF3: 98, 112

(Rom 2:4-9) WPR 66, 112

(Rom 2:4) JN1: 168, 236; JN2: 453; IP3: 276; IP4: 33, 97, 186

(Rom 2:4f) JN2: 440; RBA 134; RBAF 97

(Rom 2:5-11) GF2: 252; GF6: 172; EQ 328 (BC)

(Rom 2:5) GF5: 8, 236, 239; MFS 96; MFU 223; IP3: 371; HPS 403 (EB)

(Rom 2:5f) IP4: 59

(Rom 2:6) MFU 212f, 235; JN3: 391

(Rom 2:6f) RBA 204; RBAF 154; WPR 80


(Rom 2:1)

GF3:98 (1659): He himself falls to judging others, and then cries, O man! Who art thou that judgest another [Jas 4:12]," &c. And doth not see the work that he is doing himself. But bids others not judge, and falls to judging himself [Rom 2:1], which is like all the rest of his gadding tribe [ref to tribe of Gad?]; and how they run with their horns at the righteous, and push at the upright in heart [Ezek 34:21/Psa 11:2]!

(Rom 2:4)

[Other texts citing Rom 2:4: IP4:97 (Rom 9:18)]

IP4:32f (167-?) "I came not," saith Christ, "to destroy men's lives, but to save [Luk 9:56];" to give life to them. And this is the proper end of God in every ministration: his end is not death, destruction, increasing the condemnation for the creature, &c., but to bring it to life thereby, out of that which leadeth into the condemnation and destruction.... Is not this the proper intent of the goodness, forbearance, and longsuffering of God, that it should lead to repentance? (Rom 2:4) and repentance leads to mercy, remission, and life.

(Rom 2:5)

[Other texts citing Rom 2:5: MFU 223 (John 3:33)]

HPS 403 (Elizabeth Bathurst, 1679): This effectual operation of the Spirit (or principle of God within) is not, nor cannot be known without a being centered down into the same. For ... the Spirit's fist work is, to convince of sin (before it effect a restoration), and this it doth even in all (though all do not regard it), it doth first shew them what is evil, and then it reproves them when they do evil; which reproofs, if they be despised, cause the fierce anger of the Lord to be kindled; and such as despise wisdom's reproofs [Prov 1:30], which are the way of Life [Prov 6:23], while they are so doing, they are treasuring up to themselves wrath against the day of wrath, and revelation of the righteous judgment of God [Rom 2:5]....

(Rom 2:6)

MFU 235 (1657): And thou, blind watchman [Isa 56:10], keeps them from the measure of grace [Eph 4:7] received from the living God, which measure of grace would lead them & guide them up to the living God. And here thou art found to be a murderer & a betrayer of the innocent: for which the Lord God will plead with thee, who can by no means clear the guilty [Exo 34:7], but renders unto every one according to their deeds [Rom 2:6]. Therefore ... let the light of Christ in thy conscience examine thee, and see that thou be taught thyself, before thou teach others, lest both they and thou go into the pit together [Mat 15:14].


2:7 To them who by patient continuance [G: through patience; B: by continuing; T: continue] in well doing seek for glory [T: praise] and honour and immortality, eternal [G: everlasting] life:      qtext

2:8 But unto them that are contentious [T: rebellious] , and do not obey [GT: disobey] the truth, but obey unrighteousness [T: yet follow iniquity] , [G: +shall be; BT: + shall come] indignation and wrath,

2:9 Tribulation and anguish, [G: +shall be] upon every soul of [GT: the soul of every] man that doeth evil, of the Jew first, and also of the Gentile [G: Grecian; B: Greek] ;

2:10 But glory [T: praise] , honour, and peace, to every man that worketh [GBT: doeth] good, to the Jew first, and also to the Gentile [G: Grecian; B: Greek] :

2:11 For there is no respect of persons [T: partiality] with God.      qtext


(Rom 2:7-17) WPR 619

(Rom 2:7-9) WPT 305

(Rom 2:7) IP4: 278; RBA 180; RBAF 138f; WPR 71, 113; WPT 126, 345; WTG 296 (AM)

(Rom 2:8) IP3: 188; WPR 85

(Rom 2:8f) GF5: 8

(Rom 2:9-11) RBA 161; RBAF 116

(Rom 2:10) RBA 162, 204; RBAF 154

(Rom 2:11) GF3: 530; JN2: 64, 320; JN3: 124; WPR 229; WPT 35 [cf Acts 10:34]


(Rom 2:7)

IP4:278 (1675): That glory and honor is to be given to man, which God gives to man, who hath said, "Them that honor me, I will honor; and they that despise me shall be lightly esteemed." 1 Sam 2:30. He that brings his deeds to the light, they being justified and approved there, he hath honor in the light. His deeds being made manifest that they are wrought in God, that is honor enough for him, John 3:21. The children of light seek for glory and honor and immortality and eternal life; and that glory and honor they have, and eternal life from God. Rom 2:7. They seek not the honor that is from men, but the honor that cometh from God only, John 5:44, the honor in the truth, in the life, in the power, which God gives them in the hearts of all that are truly sensible and living. For honoring the Lord and his truth, how can I but honor those that are honorable in his eye, and who are glorious in his truth!

RBA 180, RBAF 138f (1678, VII.5): [Context: discussion of intercession in Rom 8:34,26].... "to as many as receive him, he gives power to become the sons of God [John 1:12]." So none are sons, none are justified, none reconciled, until they thus receive hjim in that little Seed in their hearts. And life eternal is offered to those, "who by patient continuance in well-doing, seek for glory, honor, and immortality [Rom 2:7]." For, "if the righteous man depart from his righteousness, his righteousness shall be remembered no more [Ezek 3:20]"; and therefore on the other part, none are longer sons of God, and justified, than they patiently continue in righteousness and well-doing. And therefore Christ lives always making intercession, during the day of every man's visitation, that they may be converted: and when men are in some measure converted, he makes intercession that they may continue, and go on, and not faint, nor go back again.

WTG 296 (Ann Moore, 1756): So did our holy master reward an hundred fold in this world and if we hold on in well doing to the end, life eternal in the world to come [Rom 2:7].

(Rom 2:11)

WPR 229, WPT 35 (1668): Consequences irreligious and irrational [of the doctrine of imputed righteousness]: 1. It makes God guilty of what the scriptures say is an abomination, to wit, that he justifieth the wicked [Prov 17:15]. 2. It makes him look upon persons as they are not, or with respect, which is unworthy of his most equal nature [Rom 2:11]. 3. He is hereby at peace with the wicked (if justified whilst sinners), who said, There is no peace to the wicked [Isa 57:21].


2:12 For as many as have sinned without law [G: the Law (2x)] shall also perish without law: and as many as have sinned in [T: under] the law shall be judged by the law;      qtext

2:13 (For not the hearers of the law are just [G: the hearers of the law are not righteous; BT: they are not righteous which hear the law] before [B: in the sight of] God, but the doers of the law shall be justified.      qtext

2:14 For when the Gentiles, which have not the [T: no (2x)] law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto themselves:      qtext

2:15 Which shew the work [G: effect; B: works; T: deed] of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts the mean while accusing or else excusing one another [GBT: accusing one another, or excusing] ;)      qtext

2:16 In the day when God shall judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ according to my gospel.      qtext


(Rom 2:12) MFU 160; IP2: 25

(Rom 2:13-16) MFS 26; JN2: 194; WPR 316, 648; WPT 127

(Rom 2:13) GF3: 52, 242, 343, 438, 514; GF6: 266; JN3: 120, 213; IP2: 349; WPR 226; WPT 29, 211 [cf Jas 1:22]

(Rom 2:13f ) RBA 161; RBAF 115f

(Rom 2:14-16) MFS 15f; JN2: 247; WPT 305

(Rom 2:14) GF4: 117; GF7: 179 [189]; DGA 66, 89; JN2: 194; IP4: 136, 248; RBA 90; RBAF 69; WPR 306; WPT 93, 163; JWJM 211

(Rom 2:14f) GF4: 66; MFU 62; JN3: 394; IPL 68; IP3: 262; IP4: 135-138, 182, 334; RBA 164; RBAF 119; WPT 170, 235

(Rom 2:15) GF3: 50; GF4:243; GF7: 40 [33], 53 [44], 105 [103]; DGA 82, 88; JN2: 195; JN3: 89, 99, 121; IP2: 51; IP3: 108; HPS 400, 405 (EB); WPT 124, 152

(Rom 2:15f) JN3: 248; IP1: 73

(Rom 2:16) GF5: 94, 316; GF7: 298 [249]; LB (G23); IP4: 137; HPS 306; WPT 177


(Rom 2:12)

[Other texts citing Rom 2:12: IP2:25 (Rom 9:4)]

MFU 160 (1656): To thee it must needs be [pure nonsense & contradictions].... thou who hath slain the Just [Jas 5:6], thou must be put off who art the old man [Col 2:9], and all thy filthy affections and lusts [Gal 4:24]. And so thou that art alive to sin, must needs be free from righteousness [Rom 6:20]. And thou who art alive without the law, shall perish without the law [Rom 2:12]. If thou be not blind thou may read. But thou art groping with thy blind dark mind, and art out of the light, & so stumbles at noonday [Isa 59:10]. And so that which is seen with the eternal eye (which the god of the world hath blinded in thee [2 Cor 4:4]) cannot but be confusion to thee, who art blind.

(Rom 2:13-16)

JN2:193f (1655): Qu. 14 [Richard Baxter]. Is not he a pagan and no Christian that thinks that the light which is in all the Indians, Americans, and other pagans on earth, is sufficient without scripture? Ans. I say that light which the Gentiles had, which brought them to do the things contained in the law, showing the work of the law written in their hearts [Rom 2:14f], was sufficient without the circumcision of the letter [Rom 2:29], which the Jews stood so much on, yet brought not forth the same fruts wihich God accepted, though they could call them heathens and gentiles, as thou dost the Indians and pagans. But if the Indians and pagans own that law written in their heart, and come to receive power to bring forth the fruits of it, which thou dost not, I shall say of you both as Paul did of the Jews: not the hearers of the law are just before God, but the doers of the law shall be justified [Rom 2:13].

(Rom 2:13)

[Other texts citing Rom 2:13: WPR 226 (Mat 5:17)]

IP2:349 (1663): Quest. 8. What is the righteousness that justifieth in the sight of God? Ans. The righteousness of Christ alone. This conveyed to the creature in and through the seed, and brought forth in the creature by the seed, and the creature united to Christ in the seed; here is the justification of the life. Indeed there is also a justification according to the works of the law [Rom 2:13, Jas 2:24], or the creaturely obedience, which the Lord will so far own as the creature is able to bring it forth; but it is the obedience of faith [Rom 16:26] which is the pleasure of his soul.

(Rom 2:14-16)

JN2:246f (1655): In this query thou goes on adding thy lies, saying ... that we put the light of nature in the room of Christ, when it's thy work all along to put the light of nature in his room, and thou asks if people may not by the light of nature do the things contained in the law, &c. Ans. I say, no other light nor nature but the divine light and nature can do the things contained in the law; and who follow that light have a law unto themselves within themselves, written in their hearts [Rom 2:14f], by which law of the Spirit they are made free from the law of sin and death [Rom 8:2 (margin: 8:1)], their conscience bearing them witness & excusing or accusing, according as God shall judge the world by the gospels [Rom 2:15f]; and this is not fallen nature, neither do we attribute it thereunto, but to the divine nature and power which all that believe in the light come to be partakers of [margin: 2 Pet 1:3f], though they never partake the letter....

(Rom 2:14)

[Other texts citing Rom 2:14: RBA 90 (Mat 7:16)]

GF7:179 (1659): For the Lord hath a seed that ways, if ye in patience all of you wait, and not matter the weather, the storms, the winds, the hail, the rain, when ye are to sow the seed, nor the rough ground that is to be tilled. For the husbandman waits patiently [James 5:7] after the seed is sown; there is a winter before the summer comes. And there must be a great work before the misty heathen be cleared in their understandings, (that are so naturally [Rom 2:14],) and the dark air be driven back, and the prince of life and light [Acts 3:15, John 1:4] be witnessed.

JWJM 211 (1762): The apostles and primitive Christians did not censure all the Gentiles as wicked men [Rom 2:14, Col 3:2]....

(Rom 2:14f)

[Other texts citing Rom 2:14f: IP4:182 (Rom 7:12- 14)]

IP4:135-138 (1671): XXI. Some Questions answered, concerning the Gentiles doing by Nature the Things contained in the Law; and so showing the Work of the Law written in their Hearts. Rom 2:14-15. [extended discussion]

(Rom 2:15)

[Other texts citing Rom 2:15: GF4:243 (Mat 27:8), GF7:40 (Mat 28:20). JN2:195 (Mat 24:23)]

IP3:108 (1668): There is a witness of and from God in every conscience [Rom 2:15/1 Jn 5:9f]; which, in his light, power, and authority, witnesseth for him; and against that which is contrary to him, as he pleaseth to move upon it, visiting and drawing the hearts of the sons of men by it. From this witness proceeds the true and well-grounded religion in the mind towards God: for this witness both testifieth and demonstrateth that there is a God, and also inclineth the mind to desire and seek after the right knowledge and true worship of him.

HPS 400 (Elizabeth Bathurst, 1679): For the Lord of the whole earth, who is the preserver of men, he is impartial in his love to all mankind; not only to them in Christendom (so called) who have the Scriptures amongst them, but his love is extended unto all people, in one land as well as in another, for his Spirit is not inseparable from the Scriptures (as some suppose). Yet would I not be thought to undervalue the Scriptures any whit; for I have very venerable thoughts of them, and a reverential esteem for them, as being holy writings: but I dare not confine all means for man's salvation to them, because the Lord hath not confined himself to them, but hath left himself a Witness in every conscience [Rom 2:15]; which witness is a spiritual manifestation of his Son, the saviour of the world.

(Rom 2:16)

GF7:298 (1667): But they that have the old bottle full of the old wine [Luk 5:39], that comes from the grapes of transgression, (by which their teeth are set on edge, [Ezek 18:2]) obey the law of sin and death [Rom 8:2], ... such cannot abide to hear talk of truth, and the spirit to guide people, who first hate it in themselves and quench it, and grieve it [1 Th 5:19, Eph 4:30]; but such the God of truth will quench their fierceness, and will grieve them that grieve his spirit, which is given to them; who will judge the world in righteousness [Psa 96:13], and the secrets of every ones heart, according to the gospel [Rom 2:16], and every one shall have a reward according to his doing [Mat 16:27].


2:17 Behold, thou art called a Jew, and restest in the law, and makest thy boast of [G: gloriest in; T: rejoicest in] God,      qtext

2:18 And knowest his will, and approvest the things that are more excellent [G: triest the things that dissent from it; G: allowest the things that be excellent; T: hast experience of good and bad], being instructed out of [G: instructed by; BT: informed by] the law;

2:19 And art confident [G: persuadest thyself; BT: believest] that thou thyself art a guide of the blind, a light of them which are in darkness,

2:20 An instructor [BT: informer] of the foolish [GBT: them which lack discretion] , a teacher of babes [GBT: the unlearned] , which hast the form of knowledge [T: ensample of that which ought to be known] and of the truth in the law.

2:21 Thou therefore which teachest another, teachest thou not thyself? [T: teachest not thyself.] thou that preachest [BT: Thou preachest] a man should not steal, dost thou steal? [BT: yet thou stealest.]

2:22 Thou that sayest a man should not commit adultery, dost thou commit adultery? [B: breakest wedlock; T; and thou breakest wedlock] thou that abhorrest idols [BT: thou abhorrest idols (T: images)], dost thou commit sacrilege? [BT: and yet robbest God of his honour] .

2:23 Thou that makest thy boast of [G: that gloriest in; T: rejoicest in] the law, through breaking the law dishonourest thou God? [BT: dishonourest God.]      qtext

2:24 For the name of God is blasphemed [BT: evil spoken of] among the Gentiles through you, as it is written.      qtext

[Rom 2:24 cf Isa 52:5LXX]


(Rom 2:17-20) JSS 43

(Rom 2:19) WPR 323

(Rom 2:21) WPR 325; WPT 162

(Rom 2:23) GFJN 69; GF7: 95 [83], 194 [200], 222 [220], 278 [245], 307 [255], 331 [264]; GF8: 24 [278], 87 [319], 157 [354], 169 [360], 223 [381], 241 [389]; IP1: 304

(Rom 2:23f) GF3: 380; ,GF7: 306 [253]; GF8: 33 [284], 53 [302],78, 213 [375] [316]

(Rom 2:24-26) GF4: 66

(Rom 2:24) GF8: 202 [371] [cf Isa 52:5LXX]


(Rom 2:17-20)

JSS 43: Instead of looking through and beyond the type to the substance, and pressing forward into a death unto sin, and a new life unto holiness, the Jews thought there was something substantially available in the punctual perfomrance of the signs; and so gave occasion for the apostle’s severe reprimand, [quote: v 17], "and hast a form of knowledge, and of the truth in the law [Rom 2:20]."

(Rom 2:23)

[Other texts citing Rom 2:23: GFJN 69 (Mat 23:37f) GF7:94f (Mat 23:4), GF8:169 (Rom 1:18)]

(Rom 2:23f)

[Other texts citing Rom 2:23f: GF8:78 (John 14:6)]

(Rom 2:24)

GF8:252 (1681): And now, dear friends, in the name and power of the Lord Jesus Christ, and his spirit, keep all your meetings for worship, and your meetings for business, that you may see that all that profess the light of Christ, and his truth, and have received it, that they do walk according to truth, and as becomes the gospel [Phil 1:27], that the name of God may not be blasphemed amongst you [Rom 2:24].


2:25 For circumcision verily profiteth [G: is profitable; BT: availeth] , if thou keep [G: do] the law: but if thou be a breaker of [G: be a transgressor of; T: break] the law, thy circumcision is made uncircumcision.

2:26 Therefore if the uncircumcision keep the righteousness of [G: ordinances of; T: right things contained in] the law, shall not his uncircumcision be counted for circumcision?

2:27 And shall not uncircumcision which is by nature, if it fulfil [GBT: keep] the law, judge [G: condemn] thee, who by [BT: which being under] the letter and circumcision dost transgress [G: art a transgressor of] the law?

2:28 For he is not a Jew, which is one outwardly [BT: a Jew outward] ; neither is that circumcision, which is outward in the flesh:      qtext

2:29 But he is a Jew, which is one inwardly [G: one within; T: hid within] ; and circumcision is that of the heart, [B: the circumcision of the heart, which consisteth; T: the circumcision of the heart is the true circumcision which is] in the spirit, and not in the letter; whose praise is not of men, but of God.      qtext

[Rom 2:29, cf Deu 10:16, Jer 4:4]


(Rom 2:25-29) MFS 26

(Rom 2:26-28) WPR 323

(Rom 2:26f) IP4: 137

(Rom 2:27f) WPT 150

(Rom 2:28) GF4: 364; GF6: 49; IPL 50; IP3: 249; WPR 151

(Rom 2:28f) GFJN 114; GF3: 71f, 166; GF4: 41, 85, 173, 349, 358, 395; GF5: 331; GF6: 76; GF7: 185 [194], 292 [245]; GF8: 154 [353], 169 [360]; DGA 99, 177; MFS 116; JN1: 211 (GF), 382; JN3: 104; IP2: 220f; IP3: 10, 370, 394, 494 ; IP4: 44, 127, 382; EQ 61; HPS 93; 235 (MF); WPT 266

(Rom 2:29) GFJN 38; GF2: 206; GF3: 142, 217; GF4: 282, 323, 324; GF5: 143, 379; GF6: 55; GF7: 25 [18], 230 [222], 185 [194], 255 [233]; GF8: 63 [311], 161 [355], 166 [359], 172 [360],176, 181 [361], 228 [382], 285 [402], 298 [409]; GFEJ 219; GFT 41; DGA 66, 89; JN1: 127, 149; JN2: 194; JN3: 394, 426; IPL 54, 68; IP1: 108, 157; IP2: 82, 102, 171, 211, 282, 360; IP3: 16, 45, 52, 130, 152, 169, 238, 252, 290, 311, 361, 368, 374, 390, 413, 458; IP4: 128, 137, 139, 226, 234, 249, 278, 386; EQ113 (JN); WPR 504, 574; WPT 247, 355; JSS 58 [cf Deu 10:16, Jer 4:4]


(Rom 2:28)

[Other texts citing Rom 2:28: GF6:49 (John 3:18), WPR 151 (Jas 1:8)]

(Rom 2:28f)

[Other texts citing Rom 2:28f: GF7:292f (Mat 24:1f), GF8:169 (Rom 16:8)]

GF8:154f (1678): as all that did eat of the passover in the old covenant were to be circumcised in the flesh, so are all in the new covenant to be circumcised with the spirit [Rom 2:28f], by putting off the body of the sins of the flesh [Col 2:11], that came upon man by transgression, if they will feed on Christ their heavenly sacrifice [1 Cor 5:7].

MFS 116, HPS 235 (1694) [relates her first meeting with Fox]: When they were singing before the sermon, he came in. When they had done singing, he stood up upon a seat or form and desired that he might have liberty to speak. He that was in the pulpit, said he might. The first words that he spoke were as follows: "He is not a Jew, that is one outward; neither is that circumcision, which is outward; that is circumcision, which is of the heart [Rom 2:28f]."

JN1:382 (1654): Circumcision was a true command of God; but who once witnessed the circumcision within of the heart denied that without [Rom 2:28f]; and then they who was ignorant of that [which] was within stood in the figure and persecuted him who had the substance: and so it is now [Gal 4:29].

IP3:494 (1670): I may add the precious promise of the sweet state of the gospel? Isa 12:3. "Therefore with joy shall ye draw water out of the wells of salvation." The outward Jew [Rom 2:28] drew the outward water from the outward wells: they had the upper springs, and the nether springs outwardly [Josh 15:19]; but the inward Jew [Rom 2:29], in the light of the gospel day, draws inward water out of the inward wells with joy. The thirsting after it, when the soul could not meet with it, was a time of great sorrow and perplexity; but when the river of life is found, when the well of life is received, and the water springs up, the soul draws it from the spring, and drinks it with unspeakable joy.

(Rom 2:29)

[Other texts citing Rom 2:29: GF2:206 (Mat 2:16), GF4:324 (Mat 12:4), GF6:55 (Heb 3:5f, GF7:255 (Rev 11:8), GF8:176 (John 12:43), GF8:181 (John 4:10), GFT 41 (Gen 17:23-26), JN2:193f (Rom 2:13-16), IP2:282 (Rev 2:9), IP3:152 (1 Jn 2:16), IP3:360f (Heb 10:20), IP4:128 (Luk 21:24), IP4:226 (Rev 5:9), IP4:234 (Gen 10:5), IP4:386 (Mat 3:11), WPR 574 (Luk 2:25)]

GF3:142 (1659): And the scripture nowhere says that "baptism is a christian's circumcision," as sprinkling infants; but circumcision in the spirit [Rom 2:29], and baptism in the spirit [1 Cor 12:13], are all one, in which the outward ends.

GF8:63 (1674): And keep down rough Esau's spirit [Gen 27:11G], for that will not let the Jew inward [Rom 2:29] pass the king's highway [Num 20:17f].

JSS 58: And do not the obedience, sufferings, and death of Christ, as plainly point out to us the necessity of a life of obedience, self-denial, and death unto sin, as ever outward circumcision pointed out the circumcision of the heart [Rom 2:29]?

This page last revised Oct 2007